In 2022, the Knox Science of Wellbeing Team reviewed and rigorously evaluated the Total Fitness model to ensure it is grounded in evidence, clear and can be practically implemented across school campuses.

This revised model is termed the‘Total Fitness Action Model’, highlighting the practical application of positive education and wellbeing science interventions.

This Knox Total Fitness Action Model is foundational to future wellbeing initiatives across Knox, including leading gold-standard student and staff wellbeing training, and promoting the reach & visibility of Knox as leaders of Science of Wellbeing.

The Total Fitness Model Review Process

Step 1: “What is the evidence for Knox Total Fitness?” & “Is there anything missing?”

  • A review of meta-analyses to understand predictors of academic performance & wellbeing in children & adolescence
  • Findings: The four pillars of Total Fitness predict both wellbeing and academic outcomes; school climate is also an important predictor of academic outcomes.

Step 2: “What are the actionable components/interventions in Knox Total Fitness?”

  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of school interventions that target the four Total Fitness pillars.

Meta-analysis results

Twenty-three studies sampling a total of 6,637 participants (thirty-four independent samples), produced a weighted mean effects size of d = .268, CI 95% [.205-.331], p < .001.

Gratitude, character strengths, emotional intelligence, competency, autonomy, mindfulness and nutrition were targeted interventions in more than one sample and thus were included in analysis. Small to large and significant effects were demonstrated for each of these interventions.

Strongest effects were found for illbeing outcomes (d= .340, p < .001) i.e. reducing depression and anxiety symptom, followed by affect(mood) (d = .260, p < .001) and interpersonal skills (d = .259, p < .001). Although smaller in effect, wellbeing was also significant outcome (d = .155, p < .001).

When comparing primary and secondary contexts, stronger effects were found in secondary years (d = .352, p =.001) compared to primary years (d = .232, p < .001).